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托福考试
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  • 日期: 2016-05-27
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很多考托党为了快速提升托福写作成绩,买了一堆一堆的书,做了一本一本的笔记.......当你累的不堪重负,冲出书海的时候,成绩却还是不尽人意。为什么?

 

因为你没有一份真正完整!真正干货的托福写作笔记!绝对是实力派!(压箱底的货,都拿出来了,你说是不是真爱?)

一、托福写作概述
 
 

托福考试写作分为两个部分:综合写作和独立写作

 

1.The Integrated Writing Task:Reading, Listeningand Writing

(150-225 words, 20 minutes)

 

2.The Independent writing Task:

(300 words, 30 minutes)

 

 

二、英汉两种语言的区别
 
 

 

 

1.美国人与中国人思维方式的不同。

 

2.英汉句子结构的特点。英语重形和,重结构,汉语重意和, 重语义。英语中常用复合句;汉语则常用短句,简单句。

 

3.英语多变化,汉语多重复。

 

4.英语被动句多。汉语中主动句多。

 

 

三、中国学生写作最易犯的十大错误
 
 

 

 

1. Nowadays, collegestudent should learn competition and cooperation.

 

2. The problem that is created bycomputers attract(draw, spark, captivate, intrigue, arouse, yield, give riseto) much attention.

 

3. In present-day society, there are agreat many young people go abroad.

 

4. In my opinion, I think that smokingshould be banned in public places.

 

5.  The computer can not instead thepivotal role played by teachers in education.

 

6.  Some people welcome raising pets,others hold different opinions.

 

7.  In large cities ofChinahas manyfast food shops.

 

8. At college, we should learn as muchknowledge as possible so that we can be well prepared for our future career.

 

9.  Some students are interested inplay computer games.

 

10. You really have two down sons.

 

 

四、托福写作25分必备的50个意群词汇
 
 

 

 

1.持某观点: claim ( contend reckon share the belief that )

 

2.支持某观点:advocate (maintain vote for side with be in favor of )

 

3.反对某观点: contradict (criticize be against cast doubts on )

 

4.合理的:justified ( sensible feasible convincing hold water bear much analysis)

 

5.好处: advantage (benefit, merit, positive side)

 

6.弊端: disadvantage( defect, demerit, negative side)

 

7.肯定:undoubtedly (indeed undeniably there is no denying that)

 

8.不确定:be likely to ( potentially presumably)

 

9.重要的:essential (significant, vital, crucial, critical, fundamental, indispensable)

 

10. 有益的:beneficial (conducive instrumental )

 

11. 有害的:detrimental (harmful virulent)

 

12.有争议的:controversial (disputable, contentious)

 

13.普遍的:widespread ( prevalent, universal)

 

14显著地:considerably (significantly, remarkably, dramatically, tremendously, substantially)

 

15. 明显的:evident (apparent, manifest)

 

16. 增强:enhance (strengthen intensify)

 

17. 减少:decline (descend, collapse, relieve)

 

18. 大约:approximately(nearly, around, estimated, roughly)

 

19. 趋势: trend(tendency, inclination)

 

20. 预见: predict (expect, project)

 

21. 带来:bring about (result in, lead to)

 

22. 引起: create (spark ; yield;; give rise to)

 

23. 建立:establish (found, institute)

 

24. 要求:call for (request,demand)

 

25. 去除:eliminate(remove, eradicate)

 

26. 探讨:explore (examine, identify)

 

27. 描绘:depict (portray, illustrate)

 

28. 后果:consequence( aftermath; outcome)

 

29. 足够:adequate (enough; sufficient)

 

30. 解决:tackle ( resolve, address)

 

31. 意识:awareness(consciousness)

 

32. 控制:curb ( regulate, censor)

 

33. 解释:account for ( be responsible for)

 

34. 投资:finance (invest in, subsidize)

 

35. 缓解:relieve ( ease, alleviate)

 

36. 压力:stress ( pressure, strain)

 

37. 和谐:harmony ( concordance)

 

38. 继承:inherit (hand down)

 

39. 培养:cultivate (train, foster)

 

40. 促进:promote ( contribute to, upgrade)

 

41. 适应:adapt to (adjust to, acclimate to)

 

42. 提供:provide (render, afford)

 

43. 替代:replace (substitute, take the place of)

 

44. 保护:preserve (protect)

 

45. 证据:evidence (proof)

 

46. 赢得:gain (acquire, attain)

 

47. 国外的:foreign( alien, exotic)

 

48. 灾难:disaster (misfortune, catastrophe)

 

49. 发展:advance (progress)

 

50. 倾向于:tend to ( be inclined to , be apt to)

 

 

托福写作常用“十大句式”
 
 

 

 

一、否定句

 

1.Instead of indulging in playing computer games, children should betaught how to benefit from useful information on the internet. 

应该教孩子们如何从互联网获取有益的信息,而不是沉溺于玩电脑游戏。

 

2.On no account (Under no circumstances)can we ignore the immensevalue of knowledge. 

我们绝不能忽视知识的巨大价值。

 

3.College students take part-time jobs not for more money but for abetter understanding of societies.  

大学生参加兼职工作不是为了赚更多钱,而是为了更好地了解社会。

 

4.One’s salary doesnot depend so much on his educational background as on his ability andcontribution to the society. 

一个人的工资与其说取决于他的教育背景倒不如说取决于他的能力和对社会的贡献。

 

5.In terms of nutrition, fast food is far from satisfactory. 

从营养角度来说,快餐远非令人满意。

 

6.Parents would not expect their children to become useful personswithout working hard. 

父母们不能指望孩子们不经过刻苦努力就可以成才。

 

二、非限制性定语从句

 

1.Undoubtedly, practical courses can be used to the reality, which isof vital importance to their development in the future. 

毫无疑问,实用性课程可以用于实际中,这对于他们未来发展是非常重要的。

 

2.Children tend to imitate what they have seen and heard on massmedia, which is sometimes dangerous and harmful. 

孩子们倾向于模仿大众媒体上的所见所闻,这在有时是危险和有害的。

 

3.The majority of students believe that part-time jobs will providethem with more opportunities to develop their interpersonal skills, which mayput them in a favorable position in the future job markets. 

大部分学生相信业余工作会使他们有更多机会发展人际交往能力, 这对他们未来找工作是非常有好处的.

 

三、让步句

 

1.This view is widely acknowledged;however,there is little evidence that smoking is beneficial to people’s health. 

这个观点被广泛认可,然而,几乎没有证据表明吸烟对人们健康有利。

 

2.Although(While) the computer has been widely used in class, itcannot replace the role of teachers. 

尽管计算机已经广泛用于课堂,但是它不能取代教师的作用。

 

3.Reasonable as the opinion sounds, it cannot bear much analysis. 

虽然这个观点听起来有道理,但是它经不住分析  

 

4.In spite of a lot of conveniencesthat cars bring to people’s life, they can create a series of serious problems. 

尽管汽车给人们的生活带来了许多便利,但是也产生了一系列严重的问题。

 

四、It 引导的句子

 

1.It is hard to imagine what our life would look like withoutcomputers in modern society. 

很难想象如果现代社会没有了计算机,我们的生活会变成什么样子。

 

2.It is conceivable that being physically active does good to health. 

可想而知,积极参加体育活动有利于身体健康。

 

3.It is a highly controversial issue whether women should join thearmed forces or not. 

女性是否应该参军是一个非常有争议的问题。

 

4.It is universally acknowledged that water and air are indispensableto human beings.  

人们普遍认为,水和空气对人类不可缺少。

 

5.It is essential that endangered species of animals be protected againstbeing killed.

保护濒危的动物物种免遭残杀是必需的。

 

6.It is high time that the government took effective measures toresolve these problems. 

该是政府采取有效措施来解决这些问题的时候了

 

7.It has been made easier for modern people to communicate with eachother by the internet in a few seconds. 

现代人很容易通过互联网在几秒钟内就取得联系。

 

8.It is worth caring about the way a child behaves. 

关心孩子们的行为方式是值得的。

 

9.It has been a few decades since the computer came into being.

 自从计算机问世以来已经有几十年的时间了。

 

 

 

 

五、假设句

 

1.If we destroy old buildings, then we will ruin the traditionalculture and heritage. 

如果我们推倒老房子,就要破坏传统的文化和遗产。

 

2.You would miss the chance to interact with other students if youused internet at home. 

假如你在家上网,你就会失去与其他同学交流的机会。

 

3.Once you change your present job, you will be faced with the dangerof being unemployed. 

一旦你变换了现在的工作,就面临着失业的危险。

 

六、倒装句

 

1.Only in this way can the problem be tackled properly. 

只有这样才能妥善地解决这个问题。

 

2.Only when children take arduous efforts can they become successful. 

只有当孩子们付出艰苦的努力他们才能获得成功。

 

3.Not only does studying in school serve academic purpose, butstudents learn how to handle interpersonal relations. 

在校学习不仅为了学术目的,而且还可以学会如何处理人际关系。

 

4.Under no circumstances should youngsters follow negative informationon mass media blindly. 

青少年决不应当盲从大众媒体上的不良信息。

 

5.So valuable is water that we cannot afford to waste it. 

时间是如此珍贵,我们经不起浪费它。

 

6.Nowadays, most dangerous for youngsters is the tendency to indulgein playing PC games. 

如今对青少年最为危险的事情是倾向于过多地玩电脑游戏。

 

七、强调句

 

1.It is for the benefit of maintaining the ecological balance thathuman beings ought to protect the endangered animal species.

 

正是为了维持生态平衡,人类才应该保护地球上濒危的动物物种。

 

2.It is not until people suffer from some fatal diseases such as SARSand AIDS that they are becoming aware of how significant it is for thegovernment to invest more money in medical care.

直到人们患了像非典和爱滋病这样致命的疾病时,才意识到政府把更多的钱投入到医疗上的重要性。

 

八、比较句

 

 

1.Studies show that juvenile delinquency rates are twice as high foryoungsters from single-parent    families as for those intraditional households. (同级比较)

 

 

研究表明来自单亲家庭的青少年犯罪率是来自传统家庭的两倍。

 

2.Generally speaking, people in modern times enjoy less leisure timethan they did previously. (比较级)

一般说来,现代人比过去享有更少的休闲时间。

 

3.Compared with those with different abilities, children with intelligencedo more well in their school work and intelligence tests. 

与不同能力的孩子相比,聪明的孩子在学业和智力测验方面表现更加突出。

 

4.Contrary to pop stars, other professionals like doctors and teacherscreate the true value for their society. 

与明星不同,其他专业人员如医生和教师为社会创造了真正的价值。

 

5.Air is to human what (as) water is to fish. 

空气对人类就如同水对鱼一样

 

 

 

 

九、插入语

 

1.Computers, most important of all, create wide communication aroundthe world. 最重要的是,计算机在世界范围内建立了广泛的交流。

 

2.Providing more parking areas, in the long run, has proved to be apractical way out in many large cities in the world. 

从长远的利益来看,提供更多的停车位证明是许多世界大城市切实可行的出路。

 

3.Observing local culture, consciously and unconsciously, can reducethe chance of offending the locals, or it will lead to the embarrassment andeven conflict. 

无论是否意识到,遵循当地的文化可以减少冒犯当地人的机会,否则,就会导致尴尬甚至冲突。

 

4.Space exploration, some people believe, will bring some unexpecteddiscoveries. 

有人相信空间探索将会带来意想不到的发现。

 

十、原因句

 

1.Violent films can do harm to young people, because they containsnumerous negative information. 

暴力影片对年轻人是有害的,因为其中包含大量负面信息。

 

2.Human beings are chiefly responsible for wild animalextinction.  

野生动物灭绝的主要责任在人类。

 

3.We should attribute (ascribe)medical advances to the animals whichdo substantial contributions to the experiment. 

我们应该把医学的发展归因于动物对实验做出的巨大贡献。

 

4.Because of overpopulation, water shortage has become one of the mostserious problems. 

由于人口过剩,水短缺已经成为一个最严重的问题。

 

5.Owing to the fierce competition in today’s world, a great many young peoplefind themselves under great pressure. 

由于当今世界的激烈竞争,大量的年轻人承受巨大的压力。

 

 

六、英语句子成分
 
 

 

 

1.主语(名词,代词,不定式,动名词,句子)

 

2.谓语(动词或动词短语)

 

3.宾语(名词,代词,不定式,动名词,句子。

 

跟不定式作宾语的常见动词:

 

want agree hope plan decide offer prefer wish intend fail desirerefuse afford choose manage expect aim promise consent pretend neglect ignoreomit happen determine demand threaten resolve decline propose undertakevolunteer。

 

跟动名词作宾语的常见动词:

 

finishenjoy mind keep stop dislike consider suggest miss avoid regret admitacknowledge delay practice deny imagine postpone risk advocate recall resistappreciate cannot help confess escape fancy defer resent evade contemplate forgivepermit detest repent。

 

跟双宾语的常见动词:

 

asksent show teach give bring buy find get keep lend tell write wish offer deprive

 

4.表语(名词,形容词:某些形容词,如careless,absurd, brave, courageous, careful, careless, clever, wise, foolish, silly,stupid, good, nice, kind thoughtful, inconsiderate, greedy, money-orientedacquisitive materialistic  generous, honest, modest, polite, rude, cruel,selfish, self-centered egocentric wicked, wrong等不定式后可以加of来引导出其逻辑主语。代词,数词,不定式,动名词,分词,介词短语,句子)

 

5.定语(形容词,代词,数词,不定式,名词,动名词,分词,介词短语,句子)

 

6.状语(副词,形容词短语, 不定式,分词,介词短语,名词,句子)

 

7.补语(形容词,名词,不定式:下面的动词要求不定式做宾补:动词+宾语+动词不定式-----ask get prompt allow forbidprefer announce  force press inspire  require assist  hate pronounce  advise  recommend bear implore remind beg induce reportcompel  invite command intend  show  drive mean train causeinstruct deserve leave  tell direct tempt entitle order warn enable needurge encourage  oblige condemn

teach entreat  permit wish,分词,介词短语)

 

8.同位语(名词,不定式,动名词, 句子,后跟同位语从句的常见词f---actnews question proposal report altitude (latitude longitude  evidence proof suggestion request ideaconclusion thought notion value fiction fear)

 

9.插入语(不定式,分词,介词短语,句子)

 

 

七、常用典型句式
 
 

 

 

1.This view is now being questioned by more and more people.

这一观点正受到越来越多人的质疑。

 

2.Although many people claim that, along with the rapidly economic development, the number of people who use bicycle are decreasing and bicycle is bound to die out. The information I've collected over the recent years leads me to believe that bicycle will continue to play extremely important roles in modern society.

尽管许多人认为随着经济的高速发展,用自行车的人数会减少,自行车可能会消亡, 然而,这几年我收集的一些信息让我相信自行车仍然会继续在现代社会发挥极其重要的作用。

 

3.Environmental experts point out that increasing pollution not only causes serious problems such as global warming but also could threaten to end human life on our planet.

环境学家指出:持续增加的污染不仅会导致像全球变暖这样严重的问题,而且还将威胁到人类在这个星球的生存。

 

4.In view of such serious situation, environmental tools of transportation like bicycle are more important than any time before.

考虑到这些严重的状况,我们比以往任何时候更需要像自行车这样的环保型交通工具。

 

5.Using bicycle contributes greatly to people's physical fitness as well as easing traffic jams.

使用自行车有助于人们的身体健康,并极大地缓解了交通阻塞。

 

6.Despite many obvious advantages of bicycle, it is not without its problem.

尽管自行车有许多明显的优点,但是它也存在它的问题。

 

7.Bicycle can't be compared with other means of transportation like car and train for speed and comfort.

在速度和舒适度方面,自行车是无法和汽车、火车这样的交通工具相比的。

 

8.From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that advantages of bicycle far outweigh its disadvantages and it will still play essential roles in modern society.

通过以上讨论,我们可以得出结论:自行车的优点远大于缺点,并且在现代社会它仍将发挥重要作用。

 

9.There is a general discussion these days over education in many colleges and institutes. One of the questions under debate is whether education is a lifetime study.

当前在高校和研究机构对教育存在着大量争论,其中一个问题就是教育是否是个终身学习的过程。

 

10.This issue has caused wide public concern.

这个问题已经引起了广泛关注。

 

11.It must be noted that learning must be done by a person himself.

必须指出学习只能K自己。

 

12.A large number of people tend to live under the illusion that they had completed their education when they finished their schooling. Obviously, they seem to fail to take into account the basic fact that a person's education is a most important aspect of his life.

许多人存在这样的误解,认为离开学校就意味着结束了他们的教育。显然,他们忽视了教育是人生重要部分这一基本事实。

 

13.As for me, I'm in favor of the opinion that education is not complete with graduation, for the following reasons:

就我而言,我同意教育不应该随着毕业而结束的观点,有以下原因:

 

14.It is commonly accepted that no college or university can educate its students by the time they graduate.

人们普遍认为高校是不可能在毕业的时候教会他们的学生所有知识的。

 

15.Even the best possible graduate needs to continue learning before she or he becomes an educated person.

即使最优秀的毕业生,要想成为一个博学的人也要不断地学习。

 

16.It is commonly thought that our society had dramatically changed by modern science and technology, and human had made extraordinary progress in knowledge and technology over the recent decades.

人们普遍认为我们的现代科技使我们的社会发生了巨大的变化,近几十年人类在科技方面取得了惊人的进步。

 

17.Now people in growing numbers are beginning to believe that learning new skills and knowledge contributes directly to enhancing their job opportunities or promotion opportunities.

现在越来越多的人开始相信学习新的技术和知识能直接帮助他们获得工作就会或提升的机会。

 

18.An investigation shows that many older people express a strong desire to continue studying in university or college.

一项调查显示许多老人都有到大学继续学习的愿望。

 

19.For the majority of people, reading or learning a new skill has become the focus of their lives and the source of their happiness and contentment after their retirement.

对大多数人来讲,退休以后,阅读或学习一项新技术已成为他们生活的中心和快乐的来源。

 

20.For people who want to adopt a healthy and meaningful life style, it is important to find time to learn certain new knowledge. Just as an old saying goes: it is never too late to learn.

对于那些想过上健康而有意义的生活的人们来说,找时间学习一些新知识是很重要的,正如那句老话:活到老,学到老。

 

21.There is a general debate on the campus today over the phenomenon of college or high school students' doing a part-time job.

对于大学或高中生打工这一现象,校园里进行着广泛的争论。

 

22.By taking a major-related part-job, students can not only improve their academic studies, but gain much experience, experience they will never be able to get from the textbooks.

通过做一份和专业相关的工作,学生不仅能够提高他们的专业能力,而且能获得从课本上得不到的经验。

 

23.Although people's lives have been dramatically changed over the last decades, it must be admitted that, shortage of funds is still the one of the biggest questions that students nowadays have to face because that tuition fees and prices of books are soaring by the day.

近几十年,尽管人们的生活有了惊人的改变,但必须承认,由于学费和书费日益飞涨,资金短缺仍然是学生们面临的最大问题之一。

 

24.Consequently, the extra money obtained from part-time job will strongly support students to continue to their study life.

因此,业余工作挣来的钱将强有力地支持学生们继续他们的求学生活。

 

25.From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw a conclusion that part-time job can produce a far-reaching impact on students and they should be encouraged to take part-time job, which will benefit students and their family, even the society as a whole.

通过上面的讨论,我们不难得出结论:业余工作对学生们会产生深远的影响,我们应鼓励学生从事业余工作,这将有利于学生和他们的家庭,甚至整个社会。

 

26.These days, people in growing numbers are beginning to complain that work is more stressful and less leisurely than in past. Many experts point out that, along with the development of modern society, it is an inevitable result and there is no way to avoid it.

现在,越来越多的人们开始抱怨工作比以前更有压力。许多专家指出这是现代社会发展必然的结果,无法避免。

 

27.It is widely acknowledged that computer and other machines have become an indispensable part of our society, which make our life and work more comfortable and less laborious.

人们普遍认为计算机和其他机器已经成为我们社会必不可少的一部分。 它们使我们的生活更舒适,减少了大量劳动。

 

28.At the same time, along with the benefits of such machines, employees must study knowledge involved in such machines so that they are able to control them.

同时,随着这些机器带给我们的好处,员工们也必须要学习与之相关的知识以便使用它们。

 

29.No one can deny the basic fact that it is impossible for average workers to master those high-technology skills easily.

没有人能否认这一基本事实:对于一般工人来讲,轻松掌握这些技术是不可能的。

 

30.In the second place, there seem to be too many people without job and not enough job position.

第二方面,失业的人似乎太多而又没有足够的工作岗位。
 

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